All biological residues contain ATP. When living cells die ATP is degraded to ADP and finally AMP. Measurement of ATP+AMP is a proof of biological residues being present. This can be done using the unique Kikkoman LuciPac Pen (surfaces) or LuciPac Pen Aqua (liquids) with a portable instrument PD-30. Hygiene control measuring ATP only may underestimate the contamination if ATP has been degraded in the biological residues. On the other hand ATP is an indicator that the residues are still alive. Neither ATP nor ATP+AMP are a reliable measure of bacteria as these contain much less ATP than cells from animals or plants. Assays can be calibrated by relating the light from the sample to a known amount of certified liquid-stable ATP standard. In case one wants to use the ATP assay to measure living bacteria the surface or liquid must first be treated with the ATP Eliminating Reagent to degrade extracellular ATP.
- Routine control that a surface or liquid fulfills the requirements with respect to contamination with biological residues. It is not an estimation of bacterial contamination.
- Development of improved cleaning tools and procedures.
- Education of cleaning staff.
LuciPac Pen, LuciPac Pen Aqua, Portable Hygiene Laboratory, ATP Standards, ATP Eliminating Reagent
Sakakibara T, Murakami S, Eisaki N, Nakajima M, Imai K (1999) An enzymatic cycling method using pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase and firefly luciferase for the simultaneous determination of ATP and AMP (RNA). Anal Biochem 268, 94-101
Lundin, A., Touma, N. (2014) Comparison between different ATP-related measures of hospital hygiene. Luminescence 29, 27-28